2C / A01001414
`ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERPERSONAL, AND GROUP COMMUNICATION
Although some function of management such as planning, organizing and controlling can be reasonably isolated, communication impacts all management activities and cut across all phases the management process. The nurse-leader communicates with client, colleges, superiors, and subordinates. One must have excellent interpersonal communication skills than to be an effective leader-manager. In fact, communication is perhaps the most critical leadership skill.
Organizational communication is even more complex than interpersonal of group communication., as there are more communication channels., more individual for communicate with more information to transmit, and new technologies, which both complicate and easy care delivery.
The chapter examines multiple forms of communication. Barriers to communication in large organizations managerial strategies to minimize those difficulties are presented. Channels and modes of communication are compared, and guidelines are given for managerial selection or the optimum channel or mode.
In addition, assertiveness, nonverbal behavior, and active listening as interpersonal communication factors as discussed. The chapter also includes a discussion of how SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation can be used to provide a more structured, orderly approach in communicating client data, how technology continues to alter communication in healt care settings, and the ever increasing challenge of maintaining in a system where so many people have access to so much information.
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Communication begins the moment that two or more people become aware of eacg other’s presence.
An internal climate also exist in communication. The internal climate include the values, feelings, temperament, and stress levels of sender and receiver. Weather conditions, temperature, timing, and the organizational climate itself are the part of the external climate itself. The external climate also includes status, power, and authority as barriers to manager-subordinate communication.
Both the sender and the sender and the receiver must be sensitive to the internal and external climate, because the perception of the message is altered greatly depending upon the climate that existed at the time the message was sent or received.
Effective communication requires the sender to validate what receivers see and hear.
Formal organizational structure has an impact on communication. People as lower levels of the organizational hierarchy are at risk for inadequate communication from higher levels. This occurs because of the number of levels that communication must filter through in large organization.
In large organizations, it is impossible for individual managers to communicate personally which each person or group involved in organizational decision making. Not only is spatial distance a factor, but the presence of subgroups or subcultures also effects what messages are transmitted and how they are perceived.
Differences in gender, power, and status significantly affect the types and quality of organizational and unit-level communication.
Gender is also a significant factor in organizational communicational, as men and women communicate and use language differently. Women are generally perceived as being more relationship oriented that men but this is not only this case. Women are also characterized as being more collaborative in their communication whereas men are more competitive.
Although information and communication are different, they are interdependent.
Most staff need little information about ordering procedures or organizational supply vendors as long as supplies are adequate and appropriate to meet unit needs. If, however, a vendor is temporarily unable to meet unit supply needs, the use of supplies by staff becomes an issue requiring close communication between managers and subordinates. The manager must communicate with the staff about which supplies will be inadequately stocked and for how long. The manager also may choose to discuss this inadequacy of resources with the staff to identify alternative solutions.
The manager used the following modes of communication mode frequently:
Written communication. (including e-mail, which will be discussed later in this chapter). Most managers are required to do a considerable amount of this type of communication and therefore need to be able to write clearly.
Face-to-face communication. Oral communication is rapid but may result in fewer people receiving the information than necessary. Verbally upward and downward and formally and informally.
Telephone communication. A telephone call is rapid and allows the receiver to clarify the message at the time it is given. It does not, however, allow the receipt of nonverbal message at the time it is given. Because either telephone it has become an important communication tool, does have limits as an effective communication device.
Nonverbal communication. Include facial expression, body movements, and gestures and is commonly referred to as body language.
ELEMENTS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Silence can also be used as a means of nonverbal channels that must be examined in the context of the verbal content. Generally, if verbal and nonverbal message are incongruent, the receiver will believe the nonverbal message. Because nonverbal communication indicates the emotional component of the message, it is generally considered more reliable than verbal communication.
The degree of space we require depends on who we are talking to as well as. It also varies according to cultural norms.
The area where communication take place is an important part of the communication process.
Much is communicated by our clothing, hairstyle, use of cosmetics, and attractiveness.
This nonverbal clue is often associated with sincerity, invites interaction. Like wish, breaking eye contact suggest that the interaction is about cease.
Posture and the way that you control the other parts of your body are extremely important.
A message accented with appropriate gestures takes of added emphasis.
Social Expression and Timing
Effective communication requires a facial expression that agrees with your message.
Vocal clues such as tone, volume, and inflection add to the message being transmitted.
VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Assertive communication is not rude on insensitive behavior, rather, it is having an informed voice that insist on being heard.
Focus on the affective components of the aggressor’s message.
Repeat the assertive message
Focus on the message’s objective content, they are especially effective when the aggressor over generalizes or seems fixated on a repetitive lin of thinking.
Point out the implicit assumption.
This involves listening closely and letting the aggressor know that you have heard.
Restate the message by using assertive language.
Rephrasing the aggressor language will defuse the emotion.
Helping the other person become aware of unwarranted reaction.
SUCH AS A VERBAL COMMUNICATION TOOL
Accrediting bodies and organizations dedicated to improving the quality of healthcare have directed healthcare organization to identify and implement strategies for improving and standardizing professional communication.
v Respectful listening
v Recommend or request more information
Written communication within the organization
v Keep your message short and consist
v Focus on the recipient’s need
v Use simple language so that the message is clear
v Review the message and revise as needed
v Use spelling and grammar checks to be sure that the communication looks professional
THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON CONTEMPORAL ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
v Determining which technology advances can and should be used at each level of the organizational hierarchy to promote efficiency and effectiveness of communication
v Assessing the need for and providing workers with adequate training
v Aligning communication technology with the organization mission
v Finding a balance between technological communication options and the need for human touch, caring, and one-on-one, face-to-face interaction
Electronic health records
Even health records have changed result of technology. Is a digital record of patient’s healt history that may be made up of records from many locations, such as hospitals, providers, clinics and public health agencies.
Group task roles
v Information seeker
v Information giver
v Opinion seeker
Group building and maintenance role
Individual roles of group members
v Recognition seeker
v Help seeker
v Special interest pleader
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